高機率機經聽力--Johannes Vermeer's Girl With a Pearl Earring
The painting Girl with a Pearl Earring (Dutch: Het Meisje met de Parel) is one of Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer's masterworks and, as the name implies, uses a pearl earring for a focal point. Today the painting is kept in the Mauritshuis gallery in The Hague. It is sometimes referred to as "the Mona Lisa of the North" or "the Dutch Mona Lisa".
2. Tronie: （荷蘭當時最流行的繪畫主題：人像）-->
is a common type, or group of types, of works of Dutch Golden Age painting and Flemish Baroque painting that shows an exaggerated facial expression or a stock character in costume.
The background of the Girl with a Pearl Earring does not appear as it does when it came off the Vermeer's easel some 340 years ago. Recent analysis demonstrates that the artist had painted a transparent "glaze"亮光漆 of green paint over the dark underpainting. Originally, the background must have appeared as a smooth, glossy, hard and deep translucent green. This tone set against the warm flesh tone probably produced a more vibrant optical effect than the one which can be observed today. The green glaze was composed of three pigments (see left): indigo (a natural dye from the indigo plant) and weld (a natural dye from the yellow flowers of the woud plant widely used to dye clothes in Vermeer's day).
4. Turban 女用頭巾：-->
In respects to the paint-handling of other interior fine paintings of the time, the broad brushwork of the turban is astounding. The object is reduced to two flat shapes of blue. The complicated folds and tucks, which would have certainly be visible, have been entirely eliminated for the sake of simplicity.
The blue part of the turban was painted with natural ultramarine, an extremely costly pigment made of crushed lapis lazuli (青金石) that Vermeer's contemporaries rarely used. The chromatic (彩色的) brilliance of this pigment can be clearly appreciated where it has been applied unadulterated (with lead white) in the rendering of the bright blue part of the girl's turban. Since Vermeer continued to employ without reserve this pigment even in the last few years of his life when he faced a dramatically deteriorating financial situation due to the war with France, it may be that his rich Delft patron Pieter van Ruijven covered the cost.
Vermeer writers have frequently noted that no line defines the profile of the left-hand side of the girl's nose. The bridge is given precisely the color and tone of the adjacent cheek. The lines of the right side of her nose and nostril are lost in shadow as well. Moreover, the blue section of the turban has been reduced to two essential tones of ultramarine blue, one lighter and one darker.
These and other characteristics have lead more than one scholar to believe that Vermeer had created the Girl with a Pearl Earring with the aid of camera obscura, a sort of precursor of the modern photographic camera. The imperfect lens of the period camera tends to eliminate line and reduce the tonal range of lights and darks.