Vocalization in Frogs https://goo.gl/pbpXrM
還有Post-Pleistocene Extinctions in the New World https://goo.gl/PG6WKQ
過，例如Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, Mesoamerica都出現過。或
Technology and the Horse, 主要講中世紀歐洲當時農業的進步。
New Farm Technology and the Horse
第一段：主題句During the medieval period in Europe (the fifth to
the fifteenth centuries), the horse became important in farming.
早期農夫用兩頭牛來拉犁並created a yoke so that animals could pull
either a plow or a cart. 牛是最早拿來當power source的動物，馬大概
比牛晚2000年才開始使用。利用牛來拉犁的工具很簡單：a wooden yoke
was placed around the animal’s neck. Here anatomy plays a role in
technological development. The spine of an ox is quite bony and
the area between the protrusions was a natural location for a
1. According to paragraph 1, what was one way in which oxen were
less desirable as a source of power than horses were?
A) Oxen more quickly been too tired to work.
B) Oxen had to be used as side-by-side pairs.
C) Oxen have a relatively bony spine.
D) Oxen had to be harnessed using a wooden yoke.
第二段：Horses are obviously not oxen, and a rigid yoke that
worked on an ox would not work with the same effectiveness on a
horse; indeed, the ox yoke would constrict the longer neck of a
and-girth harness (a harness held in place by one strap circling
the neck and another circling the middle of the body). throat-and-
girth harness的缺點是馬在移動的時候帶子(strap)會移位, and could
potentially choke the animal. 後來就發明rigid collar 就可以解決此
也能更重。New collar最早在八世紀從歐洲引進，but the earliest
depiction of this innovation is seen in the famed Bayeux Tapestry,
created in the eleventh century.
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential
information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect
choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
A) An important respect in which horses differ from oxen is that
horses have a much longer, more easily constricted neck.
B) The fact that a rigid yoke does not work the same way on
horses as on oxen makes it obvious that the two animals are very
C) The rigid ox yoke worked effectively only on those oxen that
had shorter necks than horses.
D) The rigid ox yoke would not work effectively on horses
because of the physical differences in the necks of the two
3. The word “potentially” in the passage is closest in meaning
4. The word “depiction” in the passage is closest in meaning to
5. According to paragraph 2, what was a major advantage of the new
A) It allowed the collar straps to shift position as the horse
B) It enabled horses to breathe freely while pulling a heavy
C) It could be used effectively both for oxen and for horses.
D) It rested on the horse’s neck rather than on its shoulders.