最新考試趨勢


    大家好,我是J2.

    依照2018年第一場考試(1/6)來看,跟17年並沒有太大改變,閱讀聽力一樣
    多套題(三至四套), 口說寫作一套。閱讀聽力雖然出題數量多,但常考主
    題還是固定那幾個,例如之前分享過的
    Vocalization in Frogs https://goo.gl/pbpXrM
    還有Post-Pleistocene Extinctions in the New World https://goo.gl/PG6WKQ
    都是不斷考出的題目。

    以目前趨勢來看,17年考過的舊題依舊會是ETS在接下來18年回收再利用的
    考題,今天來分享另外一個17年閱讀常見主題:農業。
    農業常考的重點不外乎各地農業的發展特色,全世界的農業托福幾乎都考
    過,例如Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, Mesoamerica都出現過。或
    是考各世紀農業使用的工具的不同,包含何時開始使用動物拉犁,以及其他
    更進一步的改變等等。今天要讓大家看的是2017年4月15日考的New Farm
    Technology and the Horse, 主要講中世紀歐洲當時農業的進步。

    歡迎同學嘗試作答!

    New Farm Technology and the Horse
    第一段:主題句During the medieval period in Europe (the fifth to
    the fifteenth centuries), the horse became important in farming.
    早期農夫用兩頭牛來拉犁並created a yoke so that animals could pull
    either a plow or a cart. 牛是最早拿來當power source的動物,馬大概
    比牛晚2000年才開始使用。利用牛來拉犁的工具很簡單:a wooden yoke
    was placed around the animal’s neck. Here anatomy plays a role in
    technological development. The spine of an ox is quite bony and
    the area between the protrusions was a natural location for a
    yoke. 但是馬比起來更有耐性,一天平均可以多工作兩小時。

    1. According to paragraph 1, what was one way in which oxen were
    less desirable as a source of power than horses were?
      A) Oxen more quickly been too tired to work.
      B) Oxen had to be used as side-by-side pairs.
      C) Oxen have a relatively bony spine.
      D) Oxen had to be harnessed using a wooden yoke.

    第二段:Horses are obviously not oxen, and a rigid yoke that
    worked on an ox would not work with the same effectiveness on a
    horse; indeed, the ox yoke would constrict the longer neck of a
    horse. 馬背比較平,而且直立的脖子比較適合用collar不適合用throat-
    and-girth harness (a harness held in place by one strap circling
    the neck and another circling the middle of the body). throat-and-
    girth harness的缺點是馬在移動的時候帶子(strap)會移位, and could
    potentially choke the animal. 後來就發明rigid collar 就可以解決此
    問題。Rigid collar放在馬的頭上以及肩膀上,這樣就可以自然呼吸,載重
    也能更重。New collar最早在八世紀從歐洲引進,but the earliest
    depiction of this innovation is seen in the famed Bayeux Tapestry,
    created in the eleventh century.

    2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential
    information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect
    choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
    essential information.
      A) An important respect in which horses differ from oxen is that
    horses have a much longer, more easily constricted neck.
      B) The fact that a rigid yoke does not work the same way on
    horses as on oxen makes it obvious that the two animals are very
    different.
      C) The rigid ox yoke worked effectively only on those oxen that
    had shorter necks than horses.
      D) The rigid ox yoke would not work effectively on horses
    because of the physical differences in the necks of the two
    animals.

    3. The word “potentially” in the passage is closest in meaning
    to
      A) quickly
      B) accidentally
      C) possibly
      D) essentially

    4. The word “depiction” in the passage is closest in meaning to
      A) recognition
      B) illustration
      C) benefit
      D) product

    5. According to paragraph 2, what was a major advantage of the new
    horse collar?
      A) It allowed the collar straps to shift position as the horse
    moved.
      B) It enabled horses to breathe freely while pulling a heavy
    object.
      C) It could be used effectively both for oxen and for horses.
      D) It rested on the horse’s neck rather than on its shoulders.

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