2015年9月9日 星期三

托福常考鳥類重點整理

整理了多年托福機經考題,
除了把每次考試依照學科分類外,
動物也是在聽說讀寫裡舉例中常提到,
有些動物對台灣學生來說相對陌生(美洲、非洲等地生物),
尤其是英文一出現(尤其聽力)可能又會一時頓住,
影響聽力理解以及作題,
故在此把一些平常整理許久的東西慢慢分享給大家。

今天要跟大家分享的是托福曾經提過、且鮮為人知的鳥類,
以及提到這些鳥類時的重點。

這些動物常在口說Task 4 or 6出現,
意謂著除了先了解這些動物中文名以及重點外,
同學也可以事先用發音字典(Merriam Webster, Cambridge等等)確定發音
這樣也能確保口說出現時能念對這些字
及熟悉相關概念。



1.     sandpiper 



機經點:在口說第六題曾考過wetlands provide two important benefits for animals that stay there temporarily. 
其中提到的一個優點feeing and resting place 時,舉的例子就是sandpiper.  Sandpiper跟眾多鳥類一樣migrate long distances and they have to fly overland all the way across the United States. During the journey overland, they could find food they usually eat on the wetlands and have a place to rest, which makes it possible for them to migrate such long distance.



2. white-crowned sparrow 白冠雀

機經點:在聽力曾提到一位科學家Derryberry研究鳥叫聲會不會隨著時間而有所改變,實驗對象就是white-crowned sparrow, 因為錄音資料最多也最早。他發現進幾年whit-crowned sparrows 聲音比較低,
速度也比較慢。他後來也做了一些實驗,讓female white-crowned sparrows分別聽以前的跟現在的錄音(historical and modern songs),
結果顯示他們對modern songs比較敏感,
同樣的實驗也在公鳥上作,也發現他們對現在的其他公鳥的叫聲比較有侵略性。





3. 
herring gull 銀鷗


機經點:聽力加試曾考到herring gull有一種特別的行為叫drop-catch.

Clamherring gull的主食之一, herring gull通常會飛的很高然後在高空中丟下clam讓它砸碎在石頭上,就能吃到裡面的肉。
但他們也有特殊的drop-catch behavior, 即先drop, 但在還沒撞到石頭之前,迅速的飛下去用嘴巴銜住,科學家探討他們為何這樣作?

Jennifer Gamble and Daniel Crystal 探討多種可能性,可能是repositioning, 就是透過drop-catch調整clam的位置,讓clam在墜落到地面上可以順利的破裂而取得食物,不過觀察了200多次過程中,只有10幾次clam在嘴巴中的位置有改變,所以排除了這可能性。最後發現年輕的比老的herring gull engage in drop catch behavior much more often than older ones, 所以在玩的可能性比較大。

4. Western scrub-jay 西叢鴉 

機經點
根據傳統Bischof-Kohler hypothesis, 人類是唯一會anticipate future needs的動物,其他動物的future-oriented behavior is purely instinctive. 


但科學家想要進一步驗證這個理論,實驗對象就是Western scrub-jay. 實驗主要分成兩階段。第一階段jays每隔一天都被放在不同的隔間(compartment),     一三五放在有食物的隔間(叫breakfast compartment),二四六則沒有食物(no-breakfast compartment), jays習慣一陣子。實驗的第二階段讓他們有儲藏食物(cache)的機會,後來發現他們被放在no-breakfast compartment時會cache more food, 似乎推翻Bischof-Kohler hypothesis, 不過當然需要更多實驗來佐證。

5. Yellow-rumped cacique 黃腰酋長鵬


在所有鳥類品種中,13% nest in colonies. Yellow-rumped cacique就是其中一種群居鳥類(colonial birds).

曾提到過他們築巢時的三個特色:
一、把巢築在島上或是 wasp 巢的旁邊, 藉由wasps保護他們鳥群。
二、群體攻擊(mob) predators 

三、把新舊巢 (active and abandoned nests)混在一起讓 predators 不易察覺。



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