2013年7月8日 星期一

聽力高機率考題: List of Biomimicry


托福最愛考的biomimicry,
曾出現過的包括透過蝴蝶翅膀研發出防水抗汙的paint,
利用gecko(壁虎)足部有剛毛(setae)的特性發明出無痕黏著劑,
除此之外生活上還有很多常見的biomimicry的產物!


看看還有哪些生活常見的物品是模仿什麼生物發明的?
資料來源:
http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/photos/7-amazing-examples-of-biomimicry/copying-mother-nature

1sharkskin = swimsuit


Seen under an electron microscope, sharkskin is made up of countless overlapping scales called dermal denticles (or "little skin teeth"). The denticles have grooves running down their length in alignment with water flow. These grooves disrupt the formation of eddies (漩渦), or turbulent swirls of slower water, making the water pass by faster. The rough shape also discourages parasitic growth such as algae and barnacles.


2. burr = Velcro 魔鬼沾


相信同學小時候一定都做過這種惡作劇,把鬼針草丢在別人衣服身上,黏的背上都是,科學家也利用一種類似鬼針草的植物burr, 發明出我們隨處都用的到的魔鬼沾 Velcro.
p.s. 第一個發明出魔鬼沾的公司叫Velcro, 所以以後都直接叫魔鬼沾Velcro, 另外常見的同樣用法的用字有baid-aid (ok蹦)、Q-tips(棉花棒, 之前有看到在台灣的外國人還是習慣用Q-tips XD 跟留學生一定要帶個大同電鍋同樣意思吧 lol )

Velcro was invented by Swiss engineer George de Mestral in 1941 after he removed burrs from his dog and decided to take a closer look at how they worked. The small hooks found at the end of the burr needles inspired him to create the now ubiquitous Velcro.

有種遊戲要穿著一件衣服然後奮力一跳黏在牆壁上的就叫做 "Velcro jumping!!"






3. Geckskin = gecko's foot


科學家研究壁虎腳上的結構特徵,發明一種黏版。


For years, biologists have been amazed by the power of gecko feet, which let these 5-ounce lizards produce an adhesive force roughly equivalent to carrying

nine pounds up a wall without slipping. Now, a team of polymer scientists and a biologist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have discovered exactly how the gecko does it, leading them to invent "Geckskin," a device that can hold 700 pounds on a smooth wall.

Beyond its impressive sticking ability, the device can be released with negligible effort and reused many times with no loss of effectiveness. For example, it can be used to stick a 42-inch television to a wall, released with a gentle tug and restuck to another surface as many times as needed, leaving no residue. (不留痕跡)

Previous efforts to synthesize the tremendous adhesive power of gecko feet and pads were based on the qualities of microscopic hairs on their toes called setae (剛毛,棘毛) but efforts to translate them to larger scales were unsuccessful, in part because the complexity of the entire gecko foot was not taken into account. As Irschick explains, a gecko's foot has several interacting elements, including tendons, bones and skin, that work together to produce easily reversible adhesion.
更多biomimicry請看原文網址:
http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/photos/7-amazing-examples-of-biomimicry/copying-mother-nature








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